Chang, Eli
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讓火災的可能性減至最低(Minimize Campfire Impacts)

Fires vs. Stoves The use of campfires, once a necessity for cooking and warmth, is steeped in history and tradition. Some people would not think of camping without a campfire. Campfire building is also an important skill for every camper. Yet, the natural appearance of many areas has been degraded by the overuse of fires and an increasing demand for firewood. The development of light weight efficient camp stoves has encouraged a shift away from the traditional fire. Stoves have be come essential equipment for minimum-impact camping. They are fast, flexible, and eliminate firewood availability as a concern in campsite selection. Stoves operate in almost any weather condition, and they Leave No Trace. 讓火災可能性減至最低 火 VS. 火爐 營火曾經使用於烹煮和取暖上沉浸於歷史和傳統當中。多數人無法想像露營時卻沒有營火的情況。如何升起一堆營火也是需要相當的技巧。許多區域由於過度的使用火和營火柴的需求量增加使得的自然景觀減少了。輕量化露營用爐具的開發促使傳統用火的轉移。爐具是一項可以減少露營對環境的衝擊中必備的器具。他們是迅速、靈活的,且在營地的選擇時對於營火柴的取得可以不加以考慮。 爐具可以在大部份的氣候狀況下使用,更重要的是它們是 Leave No Trace 的。 Should you build a fire? ‧ The most important consideration to be made when deciding to use a fire is the potential damage to the backcountry. ‧ What is the fire danger for the time of year and the location you have selected? n Are there administrative restrictions from the agency that administers the area? ‧ Is there sufficient wood so its removal will not be noticeable? ‧ Does the harshness of alpine and desert growing conditions for trees and shrubs mean that the regeneration of wood sources cannot keep pace with the demand for firewood? ‧ Do group members possess the skill to build a campfire that will Leave No Trace? 當你可能需要生火時? ‧必須嚴加考慮當決定生火時,對土地可能造成的損害。 ‧那個區域是否有受機構管理並限制? What is the fire danger for the time of year and the location you have selected? ‧是否有足夠的木頭再遷移後不會太過顯目? ‧在高山和沙漠,樹木和灌木再升的速度是否和營火柴需求的同步? ‧小組成員是否有能力依照 Leave No Trace 的原則生起營火。 Lessening Impacts When Campfires Are Used Camp in areas where wood is abundant if building a fire. Choose not to have a fire in areas where there is little wood at higher elevations, in heavily used areas, or in desert settings. A true Leave No Trace fire shows no evidence of having been constructed. 減少營火使用時的衝擊 假如在木頭資源豐富的區域露營時要生火。選擇沒有火且只有少數木頭的高地處,大量使用過的地方或是荒蕪的區域。A true Leave No Trace fire shows no evidence of having been constructed. Existing Fire Rings: The best place to build a fire is within an existing fire ring in a well-placed campsite. Keep the fire small and burning only for the time you are using it. Allow wood to burn completely to ash. Put out fires with water, not dirt. Dirt may not completely extinguish the fire. Avoid building fires next to rock out crops where the black scars will remain for many years. 現有的火圈:最佳的生火處是在現有的火圈內且在一個設置良好的營地內。僅在你使用的期間內保持小火源燃燒。使木頭完全燃燒成灰燼。將火置入水中,而不是用土,土無法完全將火熄滅。避免將火生在靠近裸露的岩石上,燃燒後的黑色焦痕將會持續數年之久。 Mound Fire: Construction of a mound fire can be accomplished by using simple tools: a garden trowel, large stuff sack and a ground cloth or plastic garbage bag. To build this type of fire: Collect some mineral soil, sand, or gravel from an already disturbed source. The root hole of a toppled tree is one such source. Lay a ground cloth on the fire site and then spread the soil into a circular, flat-topped mound at least 3 to 5 inches thick. The thickness of the mound is critical to insulate the ground below from the heat of the fire. The ground cloth or garbage bag is important only in that it makes cleaning up the fire much easier. The circumference of the mound should be larger than the size of the fire to allow for the spreading of coals. The advantage of the mound fire is that it can be built on flat exposed rock or on an organic surface such as litter, duff or grass. 土墩火:建造一座土墩火可利用簡易的工具來完成:a garden trowel, large stuff sack and a ground cloth or plastic garbage bag.建造這類型的火: 從一個已經被干擾過的來源地收集一些礦物,如土壤、沙和礫石。The root hole of a toppled tree is one such source.將地鋪放置在預備要升火的場地上,將soil鋪成約後3至5英吋厚圓形土墩。土墩的厚度必須足夠隔絕火向下的傳導的熱能。鋪上地鋪的重要性是為了增加清理火堆時的便利。土墩範圍的大小要比升起的火堆大以考慮到燃燒時炭火向四周散開。土墩火的好處是它可以使用在平坦裸露的岩石或如草地、落葉層、地面腐植質等的有機表層上。 Fire Pans: Use of a fire pan is a good alternative for fire building. Metal oil drain pans and some backyard barbecue grills make effective and inexpensive fire pans. The pan should have at least three-inch-high sides. It should be elevated on rocks or lined with mineral soil so the heat does not scorch the ground. 火盆:使用火盆生火是一種不錯的替代方式。Metal oil drain pans 和後院烤肉用的架子也可製作廉價又有用的火盆。火盆側面的高度至少要有3英吋高且能墊高在岩石和標示的土推上使熱源不至於灼傷地面。 Firewood And Cleanup: Standing trees, dead or alive, are home to birds and insects, so leave them intact. Fallen trees also provide bird and animal shelter, increase water holding capacity of the soil, and recycle nutrients back into the environment through decomposition. Stripping branches from standing or fallen trees also detracts from an area's natural appearance. ‧ Avoid using hatchets, saws, or breaking branches off standing or downed trees. Dead and down wood burns easily, is easy to collect and leaves less impact. ‧ Use small pieces of wood no larger than the diameter of an adult wrist that can be broken with your hands. ‧ Gather wood over a wide area away from camp. Use dry drift wood on rivers and sea shores. ‧ Burn all wood to white ash, grind small coals to ash between your gloved hands, thoroughly soak with water, and scatter the remains over a large area away from camp. Ashes may have to be packed out in river corridors. ‧ Replace soil where you found it when cleaning up a mound or pan fire. ‧ Scatter unused wood to keep the area as natural looking as possible. ‧ Pack out any campfire litter. Plastic items and foil-lined wrappers should never be burned in a camp fire. Firewood And Cleanup:直立的樹不論是活的或是死,是鳥類和昆蟲的棲息地,以此保持原封不動。倒下樹也是提供鳥類和動物的遮蔽處,並增加土攘的水質含量;經由腐壞的作用使養分得以在環境中循環。 ‧避免使用柴刀、鋸子或破壞直立或頃倒的樹木。掉落且死亡的木頭容易燃燒,且收集方便並減少衝擊。 ‧使用小塊的木頭直徑不超過成年人手腕的大小且容易折斷的。 ‧在遠離營區的區域收集木柴。使用河邊或是海邊的漂流木。 ‧將木柴完全燃燒成白色的灰燼,將未燒完的炭火壓碎成細小的灰燼,徹底的用水浸漬來滅跡,將灰燼分散的灑在範圍大且遠離營區的地方。灰燼盡可能集中在溪流畔。 ‧將土墩或火盆清理過後的土壤回歸原位。 ‧將未使用過的木柴散佈四周,盡可能保持場地的自然原貌。 ‧打包營火的餘燼。絕對不要將塑膠製品和鋁箔包丟入營火中燃燒。 Safety ‧ Provide adequate supervision for young people when using stoves or fires. ‧ Follow all product and safety labels for stoves. ‧ Use approved containers for fuel. ‧ Never leave a fire unattended. ‧ Keep wood and other fuel sources away from fire. ‧ Thoroughly extinguish all fires. 安全 ‧為青年人使用爐具或火時提供充分的督導。 ‧使用所有標上安全標誌的爐具。 ‧使用良好容器裝填燃料。 ‧Never leave a fire unattended. ‧將木柴和燃料遠離火源。 ‧徹底的做好滅跡的工作。 內容出處:Leave No Trace http://www.lnt.org/programs/lnt7/campfires.html 中文翻譯:Chang, Wen-Chun http://blog.yam.com/wfscout § 歡迎轉載、註明出處 §